Vascular disease and its many manifestations, including coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD), have a major impact on the lives of millions of patients and those around them. Major advances in surgical and medical management strategies have helped healthcare professionals reduce its impact. However, despite these advances, the residual risk of major adverse cardiac events remains high. Research into innovative strategies to address this residual risk is ongoing. Whether it is through the use of different combinations of antithrombotic drugs, reducing lipid levels or other disease mediators, the area of Vascular Protection is exciting and continues to evolve.
Frequently asked questions about vascular protection
CAD is characterized by atherosclerotic plaque formation in the coronary arteries and underlies ischaemic heart disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque can lead to the formation of a blood clot in the artery. This is known as atherothrombosis and can lead to restricted blood flow through the artery, potentially causing myocardial infarction. Although antiplatelet therapy is available to patients with CAD, the residual risk of atherothrombotic events remains high.
An overview of coronary artery disease including pathogenesis and treatment.
An overview of coronary artery disease development and pathogenesis.
The development of plaques in the coronary arteries, as a consequence of the systemic disease atherosclerosis, leads to CAD. Patients with CAD are at high risk of potentially fatal ischaemic events caused by atherothrombosis, such as MI and stroke. Therefore, the mortality and morbidity burden of CAD is high.
CAD treatment involves lifestyle changes, drugs aimed at vascular protection and, in some instances, revascularization. Treatment aims to improve symptoms, control cardiovascular risk factors and prevent ischaemic events. However, even with optimal treatment, which includes an antiplatelet agent and a statin in all patients with CAD, there remains a high residual risk of ischaemic events.Read more on
PAD is a progressive, systemic disease resulting from the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the peripheral arteries, causes stenosis and occlusion. PAD is often asymptomatic, but severe vascular obstruction can lead to limb ischaemia requiring amputation. Despite treatment involving antiplatelet therapy and lifestyle changes, patients with PAD are still at high risk of thrombotic events.
An overview of peripheral artery disease pathogenesis, epidemiology and management.
An overview of peripheral artery disease development and pathogenesis.
The development of plaques in the arteries of the lower extremities, as a consequence of the systemic disease atherosclerosis, leads to PAD. PAD causes a spectrum of lower limb symptoms, but can often be asymptomatic. Patients with PAD have a high morbidity and mortality burden due to worsening of limb symptoms (which can lead to amputation) and potentially fatal, systemic atherothrombotic events (such as MI and stroke).
PAD treatment involves lifestyle changes, a structured exercise programme, drugs aimed at vascular protection and, in some instances, revascularization. Treatment is aimed at improving limb prognosis (improving symptoms and minimizing tissue loss) and preventing cardiovascular events (by improving cardiovascular risk factor control and preventing atherothrombosis). However, even with optimal treatment, which includes an antiplatelet agent and a statin in all patients with PAD, there remains a high residual risk of systemic and limb-related ischaemic events.Read more on
A patient’s story of their experience with coronary and peripheral artery diseases, and how new therapeutic approaches helped their treatment and recovery.
A patient’s story of their experiences with coronary and peripheral artery diseases.
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